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Ramadan (/ˌræməˈdɑːn/; Arabic: رمضان‎ Ramaḍān, IPA: [ramaˈdˤaːn];[note 1] additionally romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the 9th month of the Islamic calendar,[3] and is found by using Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad consistent with Islamic notion.[4][5] This annual observance is regarded as one of the 5 Pillars of Islam.[6] The month lasts 29–30 days primarily based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon, in line with numerous biographical debts compiled inside the hadiths.[7][8]

The phrase Ramadan comes from the Arabic root ramiḍa or ar-ramaḍ, which means that scorching warmness or dryness.[9] Fasting is fard (compulsory) for adult Muslims, besides folks that are affected by an infection, touring, are elderly, pregnant, breastfeeding, diabetic, chronically unwell or menstruating.[10] Fasting the month of Ramadan was made obligatory (wājib) at some stage in the month of Sha’ban, within the 2d 12 months after the Muslims migrated from Mecca to Medina. Fatwas had been issued putting forward that Muslims who stay in areas with a herbal phenomenon along with the middle of the night solar or polar night time must comply with the timetable of Mecca,[11] however the extra generally accepted opinion is that Muslims in those areas should comply with the timetable of the closest u . s . a . to them in which night time may be prominent from day.[12][13][14]

even as fasting from sunrise until sunset, Muslims chorus from eating meals, ingesting liquids, smoking, and tasty in sexual relations. Muslims also are instructed to refrain from sinful behavior that can negate the reward of fasting, which includes fake speech (insulting, backbiting, cursing, mendacity, and many others.) and combating besides in self-defense.[15][16] foods and drinks are served daily, before dawn and after sundown, known as Suhoor and Iftar respectively.[17][18] religious rewards (thawab) for fasting also are believed to be improved within the month of Ramadan.[19] Fasting for Muslims all through Ramadan typically includes the increased providing of salat (prayers), recitation of the Quran[20][21] and an growth of doing accurate deeds and charity.

Contents
1 history
2 vital dates
2.1 beginning
2.2 night of power
2.three end
three spiritual practices
3.1 Fasting
3.1.1 Suhur
3.1.2 Iftar
3.2 Charity
three.three Nightly prayers
three.four Recitation of the Quran
4 Cultural practices
5 Observance rates
6 consequences for infraction
6.1 different criminal problems
7 training
8 fitness
8.1 Renal disease
nine Crime prices
10 Ramadan in polar regions
11 Employment all through Ramadan
12 See additionally
thirteen Notes
14 References
15 external links
records
bankruptcy 2, Verse 185, of the Quran states:

The month of Ramadan is that in which turned into found out the Quran; a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the criterion (of right and incorrect). And whosoever of you is gift, let him fast the month, and whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, some of different days. Allah goals for you ease; He desires not problem for you; and that you must whole the duration, and which you should enlarge Allah for having guided you, and that possibly you may be thankful.[Quran 2:185]

it is believed that the Quran turned into first discovered to Muhammad all through the month of Ramadan which has been referred to as the “first-rate of times”. the primary revelation become sent down on Laylat al-Qadr (The night time of energy) that is one of the five peculiar nights of the last ten days of Ramadan.[22] according to hadith, all holy scriptures had been sent down at some point of Ramadan. The drugs of Ibrahim, the Torah, the Psalms, the Gospel and the Quran had been sent down on 1st, sixth, twelfth, 13th[note 2] and 24th Ramadan respectively.[23]

consistent with the Quran, fasting became also compulsory for previous countries, and is a way to obtain taqwa, worry of God.[24][Quran 2:183] God proclaimed to Muhammad that fasting for His sake changed into not a new innovation in monotheism, however alternatively an responsibility practiced by way of those truly committed to the oneness of God.[25] The pagans of Mecca also fasted, but simplest on tenth day of Muharram to expiate sins and keep away from droughts.[26]

The ruling to study fasting during Ramadan become despatched down 18 months after Hijra, all through the month of Sha’ban inside the 2d year of Hijra in 624 CE.[23]

Abu Zanad, an Arabic author from Iraq who lived after the founding of Islam, in around 747 CE, wrote that at least one Mandaean network placed in al-Jazira (modern northern Iraq) located Ramadan before converting to Islam.[27][not in citation given]

consistent with historian Philip Jenkins, Ramadan comes “from the stern Lenten area of the Syrian church buildings”, a postulation corroborated via different pupils, along with the theologian Paul-Gordon Chandler.[28][29] This thought is based at the Orientalist idea that the Qur’an itself has Syriac Christian origins, a claim to which some Muslim teachers together with M. Al-Azami, object.[30]

important dates
the beginning and cease of Ramadan are decided through the lunar Islamic calendar.

beginning

Ramadan starting dates between Gregorian years 1938 and 2038.
Hilāl (the crescent) is usually an afternoon (or greater) after the astronomical new moon. since the new moon marks the start of the new month, Muslims can commonly competently estimate the beginning of Ramadan.[31] but, to many Muslims, this is not according with authenticated Hadiths pointing out that visual affirmation per vicinity is suggested. The consistent versions of an afternoon have existed because the time of Muhammad.[32]

night time of energy
important article: Laylat al-Qadr
The Arabic Laylat al-Qadr, translated to English is “the night of energy” or “the night of decree”, is considered the holiest night time of the 12 months.[33][34] this is the night time in which Muslims accept as true with the primary revelation of the Quran changed into sent all the way down to Muhammad declaring that this night time became “better than a thousand months [of proper worship]”, as stated in chapter 97:three of the Qu’ran.

also, usually, Laylat al-Qadr is thought to have befell on an extraordinary-numbered night time over the last ten days of Ramadan, i.e., the night of the twenty first, 23rd, 25th, 27th or twenty ninth. The Dawoodi Bohra network accept as true with that the twenty third night is laylat al Qadr.[35] [36]

give up
predominant articles: Eid al-Fitr and Eid prayers
the vacation of Eid al-Fitr (Arabic:عيد الفطر) marks the give up of Ramadan and the start of the subsequent lunar month, Shawwal. this primary day of the following month is asserted after another crescent new moon has been sighted or the of completion of 30 days of fasting if no visible sighting is viable because of climate conditions. this primary day of Shawwal is called Eid al-Fitr. Eid al-Fitr will also be a reference in the direction of the festive nature of getting persisted the month of fasting efficaciously and returning to the more herbal disposition (fitra) of being able to eat, drink and resume intimacy with spouses throughout the day.[37]

religious practices

Azim Azimzade. Ramadan of the poor humans. 1938
The not unusual practice all through Ramadan is fasting from sunrise to sunset. The pre-dawn meal earlier than the fast is referred to as the suhur, while the meal at sunset that breaks the fast is the iftar.

Muslims also engage in expanded prayer and charity all through Ramadan. Ramadan is also a month wherein Muslims try to exercise improved 30afb5cb81d2c864346e13b9bc61f312. this is encouraged by means of the Hadith, specifically in Al-Bukhari[38] and Muslim,[39] that “when Ramadan arrives, the gates of Paradise are opened and the gates of hell are locked up and devils are put in chains.”[40]

Fasting
essential article: Sawm of Ramadan
Ramadan is a time of non secular reflection, improvement and improved devotion and worship. Muslims are predicted to place greater attempt into following the lessons of Islam. the quick (sawm) starts offevolved at sunrise and ends at sundown. similarly to abstaining from eating and consuming, Muslims also growth restraint, together with abstaining from sexual relations[2] and typically sinful speech and conduct. The act of fasting is stated to redirect the heart far from worldly sports, its purpose being to cleanse the soul by using liberating it from harmful impurities. Ramadan additionally teaches Muslims the way to higher practice 30afb5cb81d2c864346e13b9bc61f312, 2e6e3562d9dbc29d194484e1328ef239,[41] sacrifice, and empathy for folks that are less lucky; therefore encouraging movements of generosity and obligatory charity (zakat).[42]

It becomes obligatory for Muslims to start fasting after they attain puberty, as long as they’re wholesome and sane, and don’t have any disabilities or ailments. Many children endeavour to complete as many fasts as possible as exercise for later life.

Exemptions to fasting are tour, menstruation, intense infection, being pregnant, and breastfeeding. however, many Muslims with medical conditions insist on fasting to meet their spiritual needs, even though it isn’t advocated by using the hadith. professionals should carefully screen such individuals who decide to stick with fasting.[43] individuals who were not able to fast still have to make up the days ignored later.[44]

Suhur
important article: Suhur

Iftar at Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey
every day, earlier than dawn, Muslims have a look at a pre-rapid meal called the suhur. After preventing a quick time earlier than sunrise, Muslims start the first prayer of the day, Fajr.[45][46]

Iftar
foremost article: Iftar
At sundown, families hasten for the short-breaking meal called iftar. Dates are typically the primary food to interrupt the quick; in line with way of life, Muhammad broke rapid with three dates. Following that, Muslims generally adjourn for the Maghrib prayer, the fourth of the five every day prayers, and then the primary meal is served.[47]

Social gatherings, oftentimes in a buffet style, are frequent at iftar. traditional dishes are often highlighted, which include conventional cakes, and specially those made simplest all through Ramadan. Water is generally the beverage of desire, however juice and milk are also regularly to be had, as are smooth liquids and caffeinated beverages.[43]

within the center East, the iftar meal includes water, juices, dates, salads and appetizers, one or greater main dishes, and numerous forms of cakes. generally, the dessert is the most critical element at some point of iftar. normal essential dishes are lamb stewed with wheat berries, lamb kebabs with grilled greens, or roast chicken served with chickpea-studded rice pilaf. A wealthy dessert, including luqaimat, baklava or kunafeh (a buttery, syrup-sweetened kadaifi noodle pastry packed with cheese), concludes the meal.[48]

over the years, iftar has grown into ceremonial dinner gala’s. this is a time of fellowship with families, pals and surrounding groups, however may additionally occupy larger spaces at masjid or dinner party halls for one hundred or extra diners.[49]

Charity
major articles: Zakāt and Sadaqah

men praying all through Ramadan at the Shrine of Ali or “Blue Mosque” in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan
Charity may be very essential in Islam, and even more so throughout Ramadan. Zakāt, often translated as “the poor-price”, is compulsory as one of the pillars of Islam; a fixed percentage of the character’s savings is required to receive to the bad. Sadaqah is voluntary charity in giving above and beyond what is required from the responsibility of zakāt. In Islam, all properly deeds are greater handsomely rewarded at some point of Ramadan than in every other month of the year. consequently, many will select this time to give a bigger component, if now not all, of the zakāt that they are obligated to provide. further, many will also use this time to provide a larger part of sadaqah if you want to maximize the praise as a way to watch for them at the closing Judgment.[citation needed]

Nightly prayers
fundamental article: Tarawih
Tarawih (Arabic: تراويح‎) refers to more prayers executed through Muslims at night in the Islamic month of Ramadan. contrary to famous belief, they are not compulsory.[50] however, many Muslims pray those prayers within the night at some point of Ramadan. some pupils[who?] preserve that Tarawih is neither fard or a Sunnah, but is the preponed Tahajjud (night prayer) prayer shifted to submit-Isha’ for the convenience of believers. but a majority of Sunni scholars regard the Tarawih prayers as Sunnat al-Mu’akkadah, a salaat that turned into performed by way of the Islamic prophet Muhammad very always.

Recitation of the Quran
similarly to fasting, Muslims are advocated to study the complete Quran. a few Muslims carry out the recitation of the whole Quran through special prayers, known as Tarawih. those voluntary prayers are held in the mosques each night of the month, all through which a whole segment of the Quran (juz’, that is 1/30 of the Quran) is recited. consequently, the whole Quran might be finished at the stop of the month. even though it isn’t required to study the whole Quran within the Tarawih prayers, it is commonplace.

Cultural practices

placing the bedug in Indonesia

Fanous Ramadan decorations in Cairo, Egypt

Ramadan inside the old town of Jerusalem
In some Muslim international locations today, lighting fixtures are strung up in public squares, and across city streets, to add to the festivities of the month. Lanterns have become symbolic decorations welcoming the month of Ramadan. In a growing quantity of nations, they may be held on city streets.[51][52][53] The lifestyle of lanterns as a ornament turning into related to Ramadan is thought to have originated during the Fatimid Caliphate ordinarily centered in Egypt, where Caliph al-Mu’izz li-Din Allah was greeted by way of people preserving lanterns to have a good time his ruling. From that time, lanterns had been used to mild mosques and homes in the course of the capital town of Cairo. shopping shops, places of business, and people’s homes can be seen with stars and crescents and various lights results, as well.

because the nation with the arena’s largest Muslim populace, Indonesia has various Ramadan traditions. on the island of Java, many Javanese Indonesians shower in holy springs to put together for fasting, a ritual called Padusan. The town of Semarang marks the start of Ramadan with the Dugderan carnival, which involves parading the Warak ngendog, a horse-dragon hybrid creature allegedly stimulated by the Buraq. in the chinese language-motivated capital city of Jakarta, fireplace crackers have been traditionally used to wake humans up for morning prayer, until the nineteenth century. toward the quit of Ramadan, maximum personnel get hold of a one-month bonus known as Tunjangan Hari Raya. sure types of meals are specifically famous in the course of Ramadan, together with pork in Aceh, and snails in important Java. The iftar meal is introduced every night through hanging the bedug, a giant drum, within the mosque.

commonplace greetings throughout Ramadan are “Ramadan Mubarak” or “Ramadan Kareem”, which wish the recipient a blessed or beneficiant Ramadan.[54]

Observance charges
in keeping with a 2012 Pew studies Centre observe of 39 international locations and territories, there is huge Ramadan observance, with a mean of ninety three%.[55] regions with high percentages of fasting amongst Muslims include Southeast Asia, South Asia, MENA and maximum of Sub-Saharan Africa.[55] percentages are lower in principal Asia and Southeast Europe.[55] in step with The Economist, tremendously few Iranians are believed to fast at some stage in Ramadan.[56]

penalties for infraction
In a few Muslim countries, failing to speedy in the course of Ramadan is taken into consideration a crime and is prosecuted as such. as an example, in Algeria, in October 2008 the court docket of Biskra condemned six people to 4 years in prison and heavy fines.[57]

In Kuwait, according to regulation quantity forty four of 1968, the penalty is a high-quality of no more than one hundred Kuwaiti dinars, (approximately US$330, GB£260 in can also 2017) or prison for no multiple month, or both penalties, for the ones visible consuming, consuming or smoking for the duration of Ramadan daylight hours.[58][59] In a few places in the U.A.E., eating or ingesting in public all through the daylight hours of Ramadan is considered a minor offence and could be punished by means of as much as a hundred and fifty hours of community provider.[60] In neighbouring Saudi Arabia, described by using The Economist as taking Ramadan “more critically than everywhere else”,[61] there are harsher punishments consisting of flogging, imprisonment and, for foreigners, deportation.[62] In Malaysia, however, there aren’t any such punishments.

different felony troubles
a few international locations have laws that amend paintings schedules throughout Ramadan. underneath U.A.E. labor law, the most working hours are to be 6 hours consistent with day and 36 hours according to week. Qatar, Oman, Bahrain and Kuwait have comparable laws.[63]

In Egypt, alcohol sales are banned all through Ramadan.[64]

education
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The examples and attitude on this section deal generally with the UK and Berlin and do now not represent a worldwide view of the problem. you may improve this text, discuss the problem on the speak web page, or create a new article, as suitable. (July 2017) (learn how and when to remove this template message)
The training departments of Berlin and the United Kingdom have discouraged college students from fasting at some stage in Ramadan, as now not eating or consuming can lead to attention problems and terrible grades.[65][66]

health
Ramadan fasting is secure for wholesome people, but those with scientific conditions ought to searching for medical advice.[67] The fasting period is generally related to modest weight loss, however the weight has a tendency to return afterwards.[68]

Renal ailment
A evaluation of the literature with the aid of an Iranian group advised fasting at some point of Ramadan may produce renal harm in patients with slight (GFR <60 ml/min) or worse kidney ailment, however become no longer injurious to renal transplant patients with suitable characteristic or maximum stone-forming patients.[69]

Crime rates
The correlation of Ramadan with crime costs is blended: a few statistics display that crime quotes drop in the course of Ramadan, whilst others display that it rises. Decreases in crime costs were said by using the police in some cities in Turkey (Istanbul[70] and Konya[71]) and the jap province of Saudi Arabia.[72] A 2012 have a look at showed that crime charges reduced in Iran at some stage in Ramadan, and that the lower changed into statistically considerable.[73] A 2005 study located that there has been a lower in assault, robbery and alcohol-associated crimes in the course of Ramadan in Saudi Arabia, however only the decrease in alcohol-related crimes become statistically substantial.[74] will increase in crime rates during Ramadan have been suggested in Turkey,[75] Jakarta,[76][77][78] components of Algeria,[79] Yemen[80] and Egypt.[81]

diverse mechanisms had been proposed for the effect of Ramadan on crime:

An Iranian cleric argues that fasting in the course of Ramadan makes people less probable to devote crimes because of non secular motives.[82] Gamal al-Banna argues that fasting can stress humans out, which can lead them to more likely to dedicate crimes. He criticized Muslims who devote crimes while fasting at some stage in Ramadan as “fake and superficial”.[81]
Police in Saudi Arabia attributed a drop in crime quotes to the “non secular temper time-honored within the country”.[72]
In Jakarta, Indonesia, police say that the traffic because of 7 million people leaving the city to have a good time Eid al-Fitr effects in an increase in road crime. As a result, police install a further 7,500 personnel.[78]
throughout Ramadan, hundreds of thousands of pilgrims input Saudi Arabia to visit Mecca. consistent with the Yemen times, such pilgrims are commonly charitable, and consequently smugglers site visitors kids in from Yemen to beg on the streets of Saudi Arabia.[80]
Ramadan in polar regions

at some point of 2010 middle East negotiations in the united states, Hosni Mubarak and Benjamin Netanyahu take a look at their watches to see if the sun has set.
The period of the dawn to sundown time varies in exclusive parts of the sector according to summer or winter solstices of the solar. maximum Muslims speedy for 11–sixteen hours in the course of Ramadan. but, in polar regions, the period among dawn and sundown may also exceed 22 hours in summers. as an example, in 2014, Muslims in Reykjavik, Iceland, and Trondheim, Norway, fasted almost 22 hours, even as Muslims in Sydney, Australia, fasted for most effective about eleven hours. Muslims in areas wherein continuous night or day is found all through Ramadan observe the fasting hours in the nearest city where fasting is found at dawn and sunset. instead, Muslims might also comply with Mecca time.[12][13][14]

Employment all through Ramadan
Muslims will keep to work throughout Ramadan. The prophet Muhammad stated that it is critical to maintain a balance between worship and work. In a few Muslim international locations, inclusive of Oman, however, working hours are shortened in the course of Ramadan.[83][84] it is often endorsed that operating Muslims tell their employers if they’re fasting, given the potential for the observance to impact overall performance at paintings.[85] The quantity to which Ramadan observers are included via spiritual accommodation varies through u . s .. policies placing them at a drawback in comparison to different personnel were met with discrimination claims in the uk and the usa.[86][87][88]

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